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How much do you really know about slavery in Australia? Find out by taking the online quiz here!

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Correct Answer: (e) Slavery exists in Australia

Australia is a destination country for people who have been trafficked, although the exact number of people trafficked to Australia each year is not known. Often modern-day slavery may not involve shackles and chains, which is perhaps why there is so little awareness of the reality of slavery in Australia today. Rather, slavery can occur through the use of more subtle and coercive means of deceit, threat and abuse. For more information about slavery in Australia, see our Fact Sheets.


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Correct Answer: (D) Not known

The number of people trafficked to Australia each year is not known and nor is the number of people who are subjected to exploitative practices such as slavery and forced labour. A 2004 parliamentary inquiry into sexual servitude reported that between 300 and 1000 women are trafficked to Australia for sexual servitude each year. However, that estimate was not based on reliable research data and the inquiry did not hear evidence about the incidence of trafficking of men and women into other industries. There is now a growing focus on trafficking for labour exploitation outside the commercial sex industry. The Australian Institute of Criminology is conducting research into trafficking into Australia, and it is hoped more reliable data will become available over time. For more information about slavery in Australia, see the Fact Sheets.


(a)

(b)

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Depends on the circumstances

Correct Answer: (B) False

Like trafficking, people smuggling involves the illegal movement of people. Unlike trafficking, people smuggling does not involve moving people for the purpose of exploitation after arriving in the destination country. The United Nations Office of Drugs and Crimes states one of the major differences between trafficking and people smuggling is that smuggled migrants consent to the smuggling, while trafficking victims "have either never consented or, if they initially consented, that consent has been rendered meaningless by the coercive, deceptive or abusive actions of the traffickers". For more information about people trafficking, see our Fact Sheets.

Where has slavery been found in Australia?
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Correct Answer: (E) All of the above

To date the overwhelming majority of reported cases of trafficking in Australia are cases of trafficking for exploitation in the commercial sex industry. However, trafficking and slavery like practices have been identified in other industries in Australia, including the agriculture, retail, textile, hospitality, manufacturing and construction industries. People have also been trafficked into Australia for domestic labour or forced marriage. For more information about the industries or situations into which people are trafficked in Australia, see our Fact Sheets.


(a)

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Correct Answer: (A) 7 (seven)

According to the inaugural report of the Anti-People Trafficking interdepartmental committee, between January 2004 and April 2009, the AFP undertook over 270 investigations and assessments of allegations of trafficking and offences related to trafficking such as slavery and sexual servitude. At this point in time, 34 people had been charged and seven convictions recorded. Five matters were still before the courts. For more information about slavery and trafficking prosecutions, see our Fact Sheets.


(a)

(b)

Correct Answer: (B) False

The Support for Trafficked People Program is a national support program for people who have experienced trafficking in Australia, administered by the Australian Government Office for Women in conjunction with the Red Cross. All trafficked people who hold any valid Australian visa are eligible to receive an initial 45 days of support if they are identified by law enforcement as a suspected victim of human trafficking. The initial 45 days of support is NOT subject to the person being able to provide assistance to the AFP with investigations. A trafficked person who is willing, but not able, to participate in the criminal justice process may be eligible for a further 45 days of support. Ongoing assistance is provided to people who are willing and able to continue assisting with people trafficking investigations and prosecutions. For further information about visas and social support for people who may have experienced trafficking, see our Fact Sheets.


(a)

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Correct Answer: (B) False

People who are identified as trafficked but do not have a valid visa are well protected by Australian immigration law. Once they are identified as trafficked, they will be eligible for a temporary Bridging Visa F which lasts for 45 days, with the possibility of an additional 45 day extension. If they are willing and able to make a contribution to an investigation or prosecution into trafficking, then they are eligible for a temporary Criminal Justice Stay Visa. Eventually they may be eligible for a Witness Protection (Trafficking) (Permanent) Visa, if they have contributed to an investigation or prosecution in relation to trafficking and fear danger in their home country. For further information about the trafficking visa scheme, see our Fact Sheets.


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Correct Answer: (D) All of the above

There are a number of statutory and civil remedies available to people who have been trafficked, enslaved or exploited in Australia. A trafficked person who has been exploited in the workplace may be able to make a complaint and seek unpaid wages under the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) or the relevant State or Territory laws. A person who has been trafficked to Australia and has suffered violence or psychological harm may be able to seek compensation as a victim of crime under statutory compensation schemes in Australian states and territories. A trafficked person may also be able to bring a civil action against their trafficker or other people involved in a trafficking process. For more information on remedies available to someone who has been trafficked or enslaved, see our Fact Sheets.

Supplementary questions about offences in the Australian Commonwealth Criminal Code

(a)

(b)

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Correct Answer: (C) Slavery, trafficking, sexual servitude and debt bondage

Divisions 270 and 271 of the Commonwealth Criminal Code provide severe penalties, ranging from 12 months to 25 years imprisonment, for the offences of slavery, sexual servitude, deceptive recruitment for sexual services, trafficking in persons, trafficking in children, domestic trafficking in persons and debt bondage. There is no stand-alone offence of forced labour or forced marriage in Australia. For more information about criminal offences dealing with slavery and trafficking, see our Fact Sheets.


(a)

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Correct Answer: (C) 1999

Division 270, dealing with slavery offences, was inserted into the Commonwealth Criminal Code in 1999. This division provides a maximum penalty ranging from 7 to 25 years imprisonment for a series of offences, including slavery, sexual servitude and deceptive recruitment for sexual services. For more information about criminal offences dealing with slavery and trafficking, see our Fact Sheets.


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Correct Answer: (D) 2005

Division 271, dealing with people trafficking, was inserted into the Commonwealth Criminal Code in 2005 following the Criminal Code Amendment (Trafficking in Persons Offences) Act 2005 (Cth). This division provides a maximum penalty ranging from 12 months to 25 years imprisonment for a series of offences, including trafficking in persons, trafficking in children, domestic trafficking in persons and debt bondage. For more information about criminal offences dealing with slavery and trafficking, see our Fact Sheets.

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